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CIES: “aggressiveness” or fighting spirit?

A new report by the International Center for Sports Research is devoted to the topic on cards given in the World Championships

A new report by the International Center for Sports Research is devoted to the topic on cards given in the World Championships

Swiss analysts have analyzed the number of red and yellow cards in different leagues all around the world. An appropriate coefficient was derived based on the average number and “severity” of violations.

According to the report, the most “aggressive” - in CIES terminology - is Bolivian League, and most “liberal” is Japanese League.

Among European championships, in Ukraine the cards are shown most often. However, it seems that CIES analysts didn’t put the point correctly: the number of warnings is a sign not so much of “aggressiveness” as of fighting spirit and intransigence.

 

https://football-observatory.com/IMG/sites/b5wp/2019/wp284/en/